OSHA Construction News
OSHA News for Industry DRAFT
Aurora, Illinois Area Office
Volume 1, Number 2
1. Temporary Employees - In April
we initiated two amputation inspections involving temporary
employees. One employee lost a thumb, while the other
had four fingers were cut off. Over the past three years
we have observed several other similar cases. Generally
speaking, better lockout training, machine guarding,
and supervision would have prevented these accidents.
2. Interim Targeting Program -
Since the CCP is on hold due to court challenge, OSHA
has set up an Interim Targeting Plan until the court
makes a determination. We began making inspections under
this system on 4/13/98. From the top 99 BLS high rate
industries, 1996 data initiative sites having injury/illness
rates in excess of their industry average have been
3. Injury/Illness Rates and Temporary
Employees - To accurately calculate the Lost Work
Day Injury/Illness Rate, the host employer needs to
include temporary employee hours worked and injuries/illnesses
experienced. Inspections made under the Interim Targeting
Program have revealed a problem in that some employers
failed to include temporary worker hours, resulting
in a higher LWDII rate.
4. Significant Cases - A number
of Aurora's $100K citation cases concern "authorized
employee" lockout issues. The cited companies have implemented
lockout programs, but failed to apply the lockout standard
to line employees exposed to machine startup hazards.
In the regulation the second part of the authorized
employee definition states "An affected employee becomes
an authorized employee when that employee's duties include
performing servicing or maintenance covered under this
section". Per the servicing and maintenance definition,
this includes machine set up, cleaning, and unjamming
equipment. If your machine operators are exposed to
injury from unexpected start up of machinery when performing
operations such as jam clearing and set up, they need
to lockout the machinery.
5. Chicago Area Fatalities - Within
the past year, 80% of the general industry fatalities
have been caused by the same hazards that OSHA focuses
on in construction: falls, electrocutions, caught between,
and struck by. Maintenance employees are particularly
at risk with 30% of the fatalities occurring in maintenance
operations. A sample of the incidents follows:
a. Employee was troubleshooting a grinder,
opening a circuit panel to check for voltage and was
b. Maintenance supervisor was removing
a light fixture from an outside pole when he contacted
an energized cabinet. The aluminum ladder he was standing
on became the path to ground.
c. A truck driver was in the process
of removing an air dolly from underneath a tank when
his head got caught between the tongue and the bottom
of the tank.
d. A property management employee was
hanging Christmas lights on a mall building and apparently
walked backwards off the edge of the roof.
e. Employee doing maintenance on a bulldozer
inadvertently bumped and activated a crane pendant control.
The crane was holding the several hundred pound bulldozer
grill; the employee was pinned between the grill and
the dozer blade.
f. Baler operator and helper went around
baler guardrail into the ram area three times to unjam
paper, using the emergency stop to shut the system off.
After the third time, the operator started the baler
without knowing the helper fell into the baler press
g. Auto fell off the lift, pinning the
employee's head and chest.
6. Power Press - A word of caution!
Many of the new ergonomic hand controls for press initiation
are NOT to be used as point of operation safeguarding.
Check with the control manufacturer to see if they are
suitable for point of operation safeguarding.
7. Standards - Every six months
all government agencies publish their regulatory agendas
in the Federal Register. The 4/27/98 FR shows the following
final rule dates for these proposed OSHA standards:
Respirator Assigned Protection Factors
Glycol Ethers 12/98
Powered Industrial Truck Operator Training
Permit Req'd Confined Space (amendment)
Standards Improvement Project (streamlining)
8. Process Safety Management -
The independent Chemical Safety Board (CSB) is now conducting
root cause incident investigations of chemical releases.
OSHA will continue to do compliance investigations,
but will not issue public reports in cases the CSB investigates.
OSHA, EPA, and the CSB are in the process of developing
an incident investigation protocol to be used when all
three entities are investigating the same release.
9. Hazard Communication Directive
Update - The OSHA haz com enforcement directive
has been updated for the first time in eight years (CPL
2-2.38D, 3/20/1998; under Other OSHA Documents/Directives
on the 'Net). One issue which continues to surface is
electronic access to Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS).
The use of electronic access is clearly allowed by the
standard as long as there are no barriers to immediate
employee access during the shift. The employer has the
flexibility to determine how this is done. Employees
will need to be trained in how to use the electronic
access system and there needs to be an adequate back
up system for rapid access to MSDS in the event of an
An appendix to the directive contains
two sample written haz com programs.
10. Establishment History Search
- In case you missed it, Establishment Search for any
company's OSHA inspection history is again operational
on the OSHA web site. Check www.osha.gov (Statistics
and Data, Establishment Search).
11. Respirator Standard - Although
OSHA has been sued by at least four different organizations
on the new respirator standard, there is no court or
administrative stay of the standard and compliance with
the regulation is due 10/5/98. The Small Entity Compliance
Guide is not on the OSHA web site yet, but the OSHA
National Office hopes to have this published by June.
A draft interactive advisor is almost finished (see
other interactive advisors such as confined space, asbestos,
cadmium, and fire safety at www.osha.gov under OSHA
Software/Advisors). The respirator enforcement directive
will not be completed until September.
A full day respirator training session
is being planned for the ASSE/OSHA Joint Safety Conference,
September 21-23, 1998 at the Holiday Inn in Rosemont,
Illinois. Please notify firstname.lastname@example.org
of your street address if you want to be included on
the mailing list for this meeting.
12. VPPPA Conference - The Region
5 VPP Participant's Association is having their annual
conference 6/16-17/98 at the Pfister Hotel in Milwaukee.
The conference agenda looks great and includes topics
such as behavior-based safety, ergonomics, annual self-evaluations,
and innovative safety training; for more information
please call Jodi Shapiro 847-632-6553, Amy Gibson 815-730-0012,
or Monty Gartin 815-423-5571 x4336.
13. Compliance Photos - Last year
we began scanning construction inspection photos (mostly
pictures of scaffolds) into a database to use in presentations,
outreach, and publication. Local consultants were invited
to print color overhead slides of these inspection photos
for their use, and they often reported that our photos
were the best part of their training course. Class participants
were very interested to see actual inspection photos
of compliance and noncompliance, plus pictures make
the regulations much easier to understand. In addition,
safety professionals like the photos just to bone up
their knowledge of the construction standards. Finally,
our March 1998 thirty page photo guide on pump jack/ladder
jack scaffolds was well received by the Residential
Construction Employers Council.
We recently began to scan general industry
photos into the computer in categories such as cranes,
electrical, fire protection, lockout, guarding, and
power press. We do not have many of these yet, but would
like your input on worthwhile subject matter and best
methods of making these available to you (OSHA home
page, direct transmission via file transfer protocol,
You are our customers. What can we do
that would be useful to you?
Please direct any comments or suggestions
to Area Director Charlie Shields, 630-896-8700, email@example.com
We welcome additional E-mail subscribers.
Common Power Press NEP
Citations in Aurora Since the 8/1/1997 Start of the
32 inspections, 26 with citations, 89
total violations, $266,212 total assessed.
1. 217 e 1 I - 19 No press inspection
records with certification of the person conducted inspection,
date of inspection, and identifier of machine inspected.
2. 147 c 4 ii - 9 Written lockout procedures
did not outline the step by step procedure for each
individual machine that may be locked out.
3. 147 c 1 - 5 No written lockout program
4. 217 c 1 I - 4 No point of operation
guard or not adjusted properly.
5. 217 b 4 I- 4 Not protecting foot pedal
6. 217 c 2 I a 4 Guard design did not
prevent access to point of operation
7. 217 b 1 Unsecured guards and components
8. 217 b 3 I Full revolution press had
no single stoke mechanism
9. 212 a 3 ii Not guarding hydraulic
10. 147 c 4 I No lockout when working
on a press changing dies
217 b 7 ii Part revolution press had
no emergency stop button
217 e 1 ii - 3 Weekly inspection per standard was not
conducted - antirepeat, etc.
217 c 2 I b Guard openings did not meeting table O -10
304 f 4 Press was not grounded
305 g 1 I Use of extension cords to power presses (vs.
conduit to a knife switch)
305 g 2 iii Strain relief for electrical at press
242 b Compressed air used to clean press was over 30
253 b 4 iii Oxygen and acetylene stored together
Other press standard citations
212 a 1 Not guarding press brakes
217 b 4 ii Non slip pad missing on foot pedal
217 b 6 I Press palm buttons had no ring guards
217 b 7 v a Part revolution press palm buttons not concurrent
217 b 10 Press with airline (for clutch) had no filters
217 c 3 iv d Pullbacks not inspected at beginning of
each operator's shift
217 c 5 I No brake monitor on a part revolution press
217 d 9 iv Not using safety blocks for die setting adjustment
(no blocks onsite)
217 e 3 Maintenance personnel inspecting presses not
trained in the OSHA standard for presses
217 c 3 iii f Presence sensing device had openings which
were not guarded (side of press)
Common Forklift Issues
- Lifting personnel on pallet
- Going off dock or ramp - crushed by
- Not chocking trailer and forklift
fell when trailer moved
- Striking employee while moving in
forward gear with obstructed load
- Employee riding on forks
- Not blocking forks in up position
when necessary to be under it
- Overexposure to carbon monoxide
- Unbalanced load falls on another employee
- Leaking hydraulic fluid
- No/broken backup alarm for obstructed
- Broken horn
- Broken lights
- Broken turn signals
- Damaged tires
- No slip resistant pads on brake and
- Leaking fuel
- Missing fork lateral stops (Using
- No manufacturers identification plate
- Out of tune, generating too much carbon
Tire Changing (Large single or multi-piece
- Not using proper cage
- No single rim poster
- No inline regulator
- No clip on chuck
- Worker not trained OSHA requirements
for tire changing
- No monitoring of new employee
- Not following in-plant training program
for new employees
- Leaving load up and unattended
Common Indoor Crane Issues 1997
- Not de-energizing crane and touching
- Overloading sling, load falls
- Load set down and unbalanced and falls
- Fall from crane while servicing
- Employee hit while in path of crane
- No bumpers on bridge
- No rail sweep
- No hook proof test or documentation
for self fabricated hook
- Damaged sheave on load block
- Labels worn on pendant control
- Not having a proper rail stop for
- Tonnage sign dirty, not readable
- Open resistors on top of crane
- Fixed ladder to cranes is loose
- Kinked rope near block
- No midrail for operator cabs
- Spreader bars not tested or labeled
- Chain/Synthetic slings - no tags
- Wire rope slings kinked
- Workers did not know how to calculate
sling leg load capacity
- No annual inspection of cranes
- Daily crane inspections are routinely
missing obvious hazards
- No follow up on discrepancies on daily
inspection so crane operator ignores them after a
- Rigging is not inspected before use
for visible defects
FREQUENTLY CITED VIOLATIONS
AURORA AREA OFFICE
FIRST HALF OF FISCAL YEAR 1998
1. 1910.1200(h) hazard communication
2. 1910.1200(e)(1) hazard communication program
3. 1910.147(c)(4)(ii) specific lockout procedures
4. 1910.217(e)(1)(I) regular press inspection with certification
5. 1910.151(c) eyewash
6. 1910.147(c)(1) lockout program
7. 1910.219(d)(1) power transmission guarding
8. 1910.212(a)(1) general machine guarding
9. 1910.212(a)(3)(ii) point of operation guarding
10. 1910.242(b) greater than 30 psi compressed air used
Explanation of Aurora Frequently Cited
1. Hazard communication training - Many
companies did training years ago, but have not trained
newly hired employees.
2. Hazard communication program - Employers
lost programs that they implemented years ago. Also,
companies we inspected for the first time did not have
3. Specific lockout procedures - The
standard requires that lockout procedures specific to
the machine or the type of machine be developed. Many
companies have generic programs but have failed to evaluate
energy source hazards, develop procedures, and communicate
this information to employees. We do not accept generic
4. Press inspection and certification
- In addition to the weekly inspections for the clutch/brake
mechanism, antirepeat feature, and single stroke mechanism,
periodic inspections of the entire mechanical power
press must be performed. Written certification of all
maintenance work and inspections are required. This
is high on the frequently violated list due to inspections
made under the Power Press National Emphasis Program.
5. Eyewash - A squirt bottle is not acceptable.
There needs to be a 15 minute supply of flushing solution
(an ANSI standard requirement).
6. Lockout program - As with hazard communication,
some of the companies we inspected for the first time
had no program.
7. Power transmission guarding - All
power transmission devices such as belts and pulleys,
gears, shafts, chains and sprockets, and flywheels must
be guarded or enclosed up to seven feet from the floor
or work platform. A better practice would be to guard
up to eight feet, however, OSHA can only enforce the
seven foot rule.
8. General machine guarding - We used
this standard for a several machine hazards in the first
half of the fiscal year, including rotating lathe chucks,
unused portions of metal saw blades, and head and tail
pulleys on conveyors.
9. Point of operation guarding - This
standard was used for safeguarding of hydraulic presses.
10. Compressed air for cleaning - Full
line pressure is often used for cleaning purposes. This
is usually corrected by purchase of commercially available
30 psi "OSHA" air guns.